Udyoga Parva, A Sypnosis of The Mahabharata’s Fifth Chapter.
Udyoga Parva is the fifth of the Mahabharata’s eighteen parvas, or “books,” to be found. There are 6682 verses and 10 adhyayas or upaparvas in the Udyoga Parva.
Overview of the Udyoga Parva of the Mahabharat
- 1 Overview of the Udyoga Parva of the Mahabharat
(1) Senodyoga Parva, first
There are 19 chapters in this upaparva of the Udyoga Parva. The wedding of Abhimanyu and Uttara brought joy to the Pandavas and their friends. The Pandavas were present at the royal court on the second day. The revered Virata and Drupada took their places in the assembly first. Vasudeva and his sons Krishna and Balarama took their seats after them. Other prominent chariot-warriors including the sons of Drupada, Vrata, and Draupadi were among the group’s other members.
Everyone was excited to hear Krishna’s words of wisdom. The latter began by outlining how Sakuni of Sabala deceitfully beat Yudhishthira in a dice game and took his kingdom. The losing player had to spend twelve years in the jungle and a year living undercover as a requirement of the game. The Pandavas, who lost in a game of chance, spent twelve years in the wilderness and one year, living covertly in Virata’s realm, suffering much.
The Kauravas’ betrayal forced the Pandavas to deal with challenges. After completing their stays in the woods and as disguised individuals, the Pandavas began requesting their wealth. Before them, the sincere Yudhishthira and his brothers were there. The Pandavas would murder the Kauravas if they acted impolitely toward them. They were not yet aware of what Duryodhana was thinking. Therefore, a good person ought to send an agent to encourage Duryodhana to grant Yudhishthira half of the kingdom. The holy Yudhishthira was, in fact, asking for only half of the kingdom, forsaking his claim over his realm, according to Balarama, who praised Krishana’s words. Additionally, by giving the Pandavas half of the country, the Kauravas would be at peace, and the general populace would benefit. So sending an agent to mediate between the Kauravas and the Pandavas was a wise idea. For the benefit of Yudhishthira, the messenger should speak to them gently and persuade them. He must never infuriate or anger the Kauravas. The well-wishers warned Yudhishthira against gambling, but he disregarded their advice. He lost his kingdom due to gambling. In spite of the presence of other players, Yudhishthira challenged Sakuni and was defeated by him. Satyaki stood up violently as Balarama continued to criticise his remarks. Everyone, he continued, will speak from their own inner intuition. Balarama followed suit. The Pandavas were now the legal proprietors of their property after being freed from the confinement of their sojourn in the woods. The act of pleading with one’s enemy is improper and reproachable. It’s time for Yudhishthira to reclaim his kingdom. Otherwise, the war would result in the death of every Kaurava. Additionally, Drupada stood behind him and asserted that he could not accept Balarama’s remarks. It was crucial to reach out to the Kauravas as soon as possible with an ambassador. He said that he had a knowledgeable Brahmin working for him. Sending him as a message to Dhritarashtra would be proper.
That was approved by Bhagwan Krishna, who thereafter left for Dwaraka. Later, with Dharmaraja’s approval, the king of Panchala made the decision to send his priest to the Kauravas as a messenger during the fortunate Jaya period when the Pushya star was visible. A Brahmin priest who was well-versed in excellent practises left for Hastinapura on the monarch Drupada’s orders. The Pandavas made the decision to send emissaries to other rulers after dispatching the Purohita to Hastinapur. After that, Arjuna left towards Dwaraka on his own.
Through his spies, Duryodhana learned about the actions of the Pandavas.
On the same day that Arjuna arrived in Dwaraka, Duryodhana did as well.
They both entered the rooms where Krishna was dozing off. First one inside, Duryodhana took the lofty seat at the head of the bed. Later, Arjuna entered and crossed across to the opposite side, where he bowed respectfully. Krishna awoke first and noticed Arjuna. After extending a warm greeting to each of them, he asked why they were there. Then Duryodhana asked Krishna for assistance in the impending battle. Krishna then said that, despite the fact that Duryodhana had arrived first, he had noticed Arjuna. He was ready to assist both of them as a result. However, the elder Arjuna would have the privilege to select his favoured thing first, according to the Vedas. He possessed an army made up of 10 billion Gopa troops. They were constantly ready for battle. However, he was the only person there. He wouldn’t use a weapon or take part in the conflict. Arjuna was asked to select one out of the two. Thus, when Krishna presented Arjuna with a decision, Arjuna chose Krishna. Duryodhana, who was internally quite happy, decided on the entire army. After securing the men in this manner, he proceeded to Balarama and informed him of his arrival. Balarama said that he would not back Arjuna or Duryodhana. He counselled them to fight under the laws of war. Duryodhana felt good about himself and believed they would triumph since Krishna was weak. Then he went to Kritavarman, who gave him a single akshauhini army. Duryodhana delighted, he went back to Hastina. Krishna agreed to drive Arjuna’s chariot at his request.
King Salya embarked on a journey to visit Dharmaraja after hearing the Pandavas’ letter, accompanied by his son and a sizable army. As soon as Duryodhana learned of this, he prepared to meet him halfway. Salya instructed Duryodhana to request a boon since she was so joyful. He was asked by the latter to lead his entire army. Salya enthusiastically accepted it. He then went to Yudhishthira and told him about the blessing bestowed to Salya. Then Yudhishthira commended him, claiming that he could operate a chariot just as well as Krishna. And if he wished to be kind to him, he was asked to assist Arjuna.
He must dissuade Karna from fighting Arjuna when they are face to face. Salya concurred and promised to carry it out as planned. Even noble people occasionally have hardships since Fate is a strong force. After saying that, he described the challenges Indra encountered. The Madras king, Salya, then took out, followed by Duryodhana and his army.
The forces of every monarch who supported Duryodhana were dispatched to him.
Eleven akshauhinis were added to Duryodhana’s army, making a total of eleven.
(2) Sanjayana Parva
This section has 13 chapters. Drupada’s priest visited the Kauravas as an ambassador, and Dhritarashtra, Bhishma, and Vidura welcomed him with open arms. The people in the area were urged to give the Pandavas half of the kingdom as it was their due. He did this by describing the might and prowess of the Pandavas. Bhishma joined him in his support and began to speak about Arjuna’s bravery. Karna interrupted him in the middle of his statement and made fun of it, saying that Duryodhana would never, under any circumstances, share even one-fourth of his kingdom with anyone out of fear, much less half of it. Foolishly, Bhishma was focusing his thoughts in a bad direction. Rejecting Karna’s assertions, Bhishma praised Arjuna’s bravery once more and mentioned the fight at Virata, where Arjuna had defeated six renowned warriors.
Dhritarashtra then chastised Karna and praised Bhishma. He said that everyone may benefit from Bhishma’s counsel. After paying the priest respects, he decided to send Sanjaya to the Pandavas after having despatched the priest on his way. Sanjaya travelled to Upaplavya at the direction of king Dhritarashtra to see the Pandavas and inquire about their well-being on the king’s behalf as well as to represent the Bharata family’s best interests. After meeting Yudhishthira, he inquired about him. Yudhishthira then questioned the Kauravas’ behaviour. Sanjaya replied him and then delivered Dhritarashtra’s message.
Sri Krishna, Satyaki, King Virata, and the entire Pandava family were there at that time. Dhritarashtra, according to Sanjaya, desired tranquilly. He hoped that the Pandavas would heed the king’s counsel so that the two sides might agree on a treaty. Then Yudhishthira saw that they likewise avoided discussing war. He questioned the cause of the Kauravas’ unease. Dhritarashtra and his sons were the ones who chose the adharma route. It was impossible to hide the Kauravas’ impolite treatment of them. He urged that Duryodhana give the Pandavas’ Indraprastha realm back.
Sanjaya then discussed the drawbacks of the battle once again and urged Yudhishthira to abstain from it. If he was considering going to war as a result of their advice, he was further admonished to give all of his money to his advisors and cautioned against departing from the path of dharma by murdering his relatives. Upon hearing it, Yudhishthira instructed him to make a decision on the Pandavas’ adherence to adharma or dharma.
There was Sri Krishna, the maestro of politics and the Bhagwan of dharma. He had good intentions on all sides. He should thus express his thoughts in that regard. Krishna then acknowledged that he did desire for both sides to succeed. The Pandavas should live in harmony and make peace with the Kauravas. However, doing so would require first taking the Pandavas’ portion of the ancestors’ property. The honourable Pandavas were ready for peace, but they were also well-prepared for battle. Therefore, after careful consideration, the facts must be disclosed to Dhritarashtra. Sanjaya was given permission to leave them and return to Hastinapura after Krishna said as much. Then Yudhishthira requested Sanjaya to ask about everyone’s well-being and report it to them as well. Then he wanted him to tell people that the Pandavas could wage both peace and war.
Sanjaya delivered the message to Dhritarashtra and, after assuring him of the Pandavas’ well-being, denounced his actions. Only Dhritarashtra, he said, condoned and encouraged his sons’ gambling throughout the entire universe. Then, he could see the dreadful results of it. He combined the untrustworthy in order to penalise the trustworthy. Then he said that, due to exhaustion, he would deliver Yudhishthira’s message to the assembly the following day. He was allowed to visit Dhritarashtra’s home.
(3) Prajagara Parva
This section has 8 chapters. Dhritarashtra contacted Vidura after Sanjaya had departed. The latter approached him as instructed. The monarch acknowledged Sanjaya’s appearance and claimed that the latter brought Dharmaraja’s message to him before criticising him before leaving. The next day, he would again deliver the message to the group. The king’s heart ached because he didn’t know what Dharmaraja was thinking. He was so agitated that he was unable to sleep. He was likewise not at ease. He was quite alarmed. He so asked Vidura for advice on what would be best for him. In response, Vidura remarked that a weak person who challenges a stronger person, a person who has lost all of their money, a person who is lusty, or a thief will not experience sleep. Then he inquired as to whether the monarch was in one of those situations. Then Dhritarashtra pleaded with him to use some good and honourable phrases. Then Vidura gave a description of the characteristics of the learned and the ignorant and gave him advice on the virtues of the moral path. He concluded by saying that in terms of ability, the five sons of Pandu were like to five Indras. He also counselled him to be content with his sons and to deliver the kingdom to the Pandavas in a proper manner. Dhritarashtra then asked for guidance on what to do. Then Vidura spoke once more on the path of dharma. Dhritarashtra, however, said that he was not content with such statements. Then Vidura advised that the Pandavas and the Kauravas coexist peacefully. He also described the conflict between Sudhanvan and Virochana over possession of the stunning Kesini in the swayamavara. He questioned how he could wish for wealth while leaving Karna, Sakuni, the duplicitous Dussasana, and Duryodhana to carry the weight of the empire.
He was considered like a father by the Pandavas. He ought to act like a father to them and treat them as such. He described the traits of an aristocrat when Dhritarashtra asked him to. Dhritarashtra declared that Yudhishthira had been duped after hearing it. To slay his sons, the enraged Pandavas would battle with them. His mind had been racing for that reason. And he asked him to lead him along the peaceful path. Once more, Vidura counselled him to reconcile with the Pandavas in order to curtail Duryodhana’s wrongdoing. Dhritarashtra agreed, adding that he shared his opinion. He had emotions of love towards the Pandavas. However, while he was under the spell of Duryodhana, his thoughts turned the opposite way. Nobody is able to escape fate. He also believed that fate is unchangeable. Before it, man’s efforts are ineffective.
(4) Sanatsujata Parva
Upaparva contains 6 chapters. Vidura was tasked by Dhritarashtra to inform him if there was any more information. In response, Vidura said that only Sanatsujata, the renowned son of Brahma, could allay the king’s uncertainties. After saying that, he had the sage in mind. Vidura welcomed the sage, who had manifested by simply thinking about him, and asked him to clarify Dhritarashtra’s questions while he rested.
Dhritarashtra questioned the sage because, contrary to his idea that there was no such thing as death, he had heard that the gods and demons practised celibacy in order to avoid dying. Of these two, which was true? The wise man then said that both claims were accurate. Carefulness is immortality, whereas carelessness is death. The gods became equal to the Brahma because they were watchful, whereas the demons were vanquished due to their negligence. The dying cannot perceive any forms. A man reincarnates after passing away in order to experience the effects of his actions. He is unable to survive death. Sanatsujata gave Dhritarashtra this explanation. And it goes by the name Sanatsujatiya.
(5) Yanasandhi Parva
There are 25 chapters in this section. Numerous kingdoms enthusiastically gathered the following day to hear Sanjaya deliver the Pandavas’ message. There were also Duryodhana, Dussasana, and others. When Dhritarashtra asked, Sanjaya began by delivering the word of Arjuna. Duryodhana should pay attention to anything Arjuna stated. Duryodhana would have to suffer the repercussions if he persisted in remaining in the Yudhishthira realm. With soldiers like Bhima, Arjuna, and others, he had to battle. Duryodhana would then turn around. Bhagwan Krishna supported them. That individual would vanquish all of his foes even if Krishna didn’t take part in the combat but whose success the Bhagwan still wanted in his mind. And Arjuna will conquer the whole Kuru nation by putting an end to all of Dhritarashtra’s sons, including Karna. He wouldn’t abandon any of Dhritarashtra’s sons. Whatever Grandfather Bhishma, Kripa, Drona, Aswatthama, and Vidura stated, however, would still be the last word. Let the Kauravas all have long lives.
Duryodhana was informed by Bhishma that Sages Nara and Narayana were the avatars of Krishna and Arjuna. They will frequently give birth right away whenever and wherever conflict becomes necessary for the prosperity of the planets. He forewarned Duryodhana that the Kauravas would be destroyed if the latter did not heed his advice. He denounced Duryodhana for supporting the beliefs of Sakuni, Dussasana, and Karna, the son of a charioteer. After hearing those comments, Karna cursed Bhishma and said that he had never done anything bad for Duryodhana.
It was wrong to discuss peace with the Pandavas. He went on to say that he could defeat the Pandavas by himself. Bhishma criticised Karna’s speech. Drona encouraged him to reach out to the Pandavas and offered his assistance. Despite the significance of Bhishma and Drona’s statements, Dhritarashtra disregarded them and asked Sanjaya about the Pandavas once more. Then Sanjaya mentioned them, who Yudhishthira was in contact with to ask for support in the conflict.
When Dhritarashtra realised how powerful Bhima and Arjuna were, he grew afraid and proposed to the Kauravas making peace with the Pandavas. Then, Sanjaya described the errors made by Dhritarashtra and gave him advice to control the wicked Duryodhana and his allies. By lauding the bravery of those who were on their side, including Bhishma, Drona, Kripa, Aswatthama, and Karna, Duryodhana calmed his father. The Pandavas, according to him, only possessed seven akshauhinis. Therefore, his loss was without dispute. He pleaded with his father not to worry. Then, after asking Sanjaya about Yudhishthira’s military preparations, Sanjaya gave him the full story.
Duryodhana was counselled by Dhritarashtra to reconcile with the Pandavas. He urged his kid to abstain from fighting. He also counselled him to provide the Pandavas their proper part of the kingdom. He and his advisors could live their lives in peace in half the kingdom. In actuality, Sakuni was the one forcing them to do everything. However, Duryodhana rejected his comments. He asserted that he didn’t call the Pandavas to a battle and put his trust in Bhishma, Drona, and other people. He and Karna had vowed to carry out the sacrifice of the sacrificial lamb, the war-making Yudhishthira. That sacrifice’s altar would change into the chariot. The sacrificial ladles, sruk and sruva, were a sword and a mace. The deer-skin served as the armour. Four flames represented by the four horses. Fame was the oblation, and arrows were the sacred plant kusa. He, Sakuni, and Karna would destroy their adversaries together.
The Pandavas were never meant to live among them. Even the portion of land large enough for the sharp edge of a needle to stand would be too much for him to cede to the Pandavas. Dhritarashtra talked about leaving his son after hearing such words, and he once again begged Sanjaya to explain the messages Arjuna and Krishna had left behind. Then Sanjaya relayed all Krishna had spoken regarding Arjuna’s bravery. Dhritarashtra commented that the Pandavas were more strong than the Kauravas after hearing everything. Duryodhana became enraged by this and bragged about himself. Karna boasted egotistically that he could eliminate the Pandavas all by himself.
Karna left the gathering and fled when Bhishma denounced him. Vidura cited the parable of the birds in order to argue that family disputes should be avoided and to provide the Pandavas his advice on how to do so. Dhritarashtra made another attempt to persuade his son. When Duryodhana rejected Arjuna and Krishna’s proposal, all the monarchs present left the gathering. Sage Vyasa arrived to the location in the interim. Sanjaya praised Krishna’s magnificence at his direction. The peace between the Pandavas and the Kauravas, he claimed, would be made by Krishna, who was on his way. Dhritarashtra was pleased to hear that.
(6) Bhagavad Agamana Parva
The Bhagavad-Gita comprises 79 chapters. Yudhishthira visited Sri Krishna after Sanjaya left and expressed his sadness at the fact that they were all secure under his watch. They were requesting a battle from Dhritarashtra, Duryodhana, and others. Krishna needs to protect them from the coming conflict. because he never truly desired the kingdom. He only requested five towns. However, the evil Duryodhana was not willing to give even to them.
When there is wrongdoing, one should fight in accordance with a Kshatriya’s obligations. Having said this, Yudhishthira consulted Krishna for guidance on how to handle the circumstance. After hearing him, Sri Krishna explained the need to make peace with the Kauravas in order to ensure the wellbeing of both the Kauravas and the Pandavas. In order to allay Yudhishthira’s concerns, he added that if the Kauravas ever misbehaved with him, they would all be burned alive. Regardless of whether it would be successful or not, he must go there in order to avoid responsibility. Krishna’s suggestion received Yudhishthira’s approval. Assuring Yudhishthira that war was unavoidable given the events to date, Bhagwan Krishna gave him encouragement to go to battle. When Bhima spoke of peace, Krishna made fun of him and urged him to go to battle. Bhima clarified that he did not bring up the subject of peace out of fear. He just did not intend for the Bharata dynasty to be wiped out. Arjuna, Nakula, and Sahadeva all added their thoughts on the subject.
Draupadi expressed her mental anguish to Krishna and denounced the notion of peace. She said with tear-filled eyes that her elderly father and his boys would battle the enemies if Bhima and Arjuna spoke of peace and turned into cowards. She would not feel content and at rest until she saw Dussasana’s shoulder, which was broken and lying on the sand. She was comforted by Sri Krishna. He then left for Hastinapura at a good moment for the star of Revathi called Maitra in the month of Karthika in order to complete the duty of the Kauravas and Pandavas’ auspiciousness. During the voyage, he described the fortunate and unlucky signs. He spent the night in luxury when he was travelling in Vrikasthala.
Dhritarashtra, who learned of Sri Krishna’s approach through his messengers, was delighted and gave the order to Duryodhana to make preparations for receiving Krishna and building rest stops along the journey. Duryodhana made all the necessary preparations. Krishna, however, passed them by without so much as a glance and hurried off to Hastinapura. Dhritarashtra made plans to give Krishna several priceless presents. However, Vidura informed Dhritarashtra that Krishna would only accept water to wash his feet and hands and inquire about his health. He wanted the Pandavas and the Kauravas to live in harmony. Dhritarashtra was instructed by Vidura to follow Krishna’s commands.
Duryodhana said that he would imprison Krishna when the latter arrived and rejected the notion of giving him wealth, rare stones, etc. He would then have complete power over the entire universe. Dhritarashtra and his ministers were unhappy and irritated after hearing Duryodhana’s treacherous statements.
Duryodhana was urged by Dhritarashtra not to like that. Bhishma left the gathering incensed by Duryodhana’s immorality.
The following day, Krishna travelled from Vrikasthala to Hastinapura. Dhritarashtra, Drona, Bhishma, and others rose from their seats to greet him as he entered the royal court. From there, he made his way to Vidura’s home. He then proceeded to comfort Kunti, who was in mourning. After saying goodbye to her, he headed to Duryodhana’s palace. There were also Dussasana, Karna, and Sakuni in attendance.
Duryodhana welcomed his visitor and then extended a lunch invitation. But Sri Krishna rejected it. When questioned about the rationale behind his rejection, Krishna replied that a messenger may only receive honours or eat meals after completing their assigned tasks. That is the standard. He therefore informed Duryodhana that he and his ministers could only reward him after he had finished his work. He explained to him why it was inappropriate for him and his brothers to engage in pointless combat with the Pandavas. Anyone who despised the Pandavas likewise despised him. And everybody who was kind to them was kind to him. Food that had been tainted by Duryodhana’s wickedness was unfit for him to consume.
After telling Duryodhana this, he left for Vidura’s home. Only for the night, he and his followers ate and rested there. Then Vidura informed Krishna that in his view, the visit was not advised. Duryodhana refused to sign any treaties because he believed that Karna could vanquish the Pandavas all by himself. After hearing Vidura’s remarks, Sri Krishna gave him an explanation of the validity of his attempts to reach a consensus. The following day, Duryodhana and Sakuni visited Sri Krishna and extended an invitation to the gathering.
Bhishma, Drona, and others rushed forward to offer their homage as soon as Krishna entered the assembly hall, followed by the monarch. Narada and other wise men visited him. Krishna and the other royal members took their places after the sage-people. Later, Krishna turned to face Dhritarashtra and said that he had come to mediate a settlement between the Pandavas and the Kauravas to prevent the slaughter of the regal troops. Among all the royal families, the Kurus family was the best. And if any member of that family behaved improperly, Dhritarashtra was to correct him. His son had abandoned dharma and artha and was acting cruelly.
The task of bringing about peace between the two parties fell to Dhritarashtra and Krishna. Dhritarashtra needs to discipline his kid. The Pandavas would be in Krishna’s hands. That would be advantageous to both parties. The Kunti boys were ready to assist the monarch. Additionally, they were equipped to go to battle if required. The monarch had the right to do whatever he thought was best. The assembly members were stunned after hearing Krishna’s statements, and none of them dared to respond. Then Parashurama counselled Dhritarashtra to make peace by relating the tale of the ruler Dhambhodbhava. The wise Kanva then told Duryodhana the story of Matali, Indra’s charioteer, and counselled him to make peace with the Pandavas. Additionally, Sage Narada told Duryodhana several stories in an effort to persuade him to secure peace.
In response to Dhritarashtra’s plea, Krishna once more advised Duryodhana to make peace with the Pandavas and live happily ever after after having heeded the advice of his companions. Duryodhana claimed that Krishna was biassed in favour of the Pandavas after hearing such repulsive statements from Krishna. So he was mistreating him. He was despised by all of them, even Dhritarashtra, without cause. But he didn’t do anything wrong. He said that the Pandavas would not receive even a tiny bit of land. He made that choice. Duryodhana’s statements infuriated Krishna, who then suggested that Duryodhana, Dussasana, Sakuni, and Karna be taken as prisoners and sent to the Pandavas after detailing Duryodhana’s transgressions.
Gandhari was contacted by Dhritarashtra and requested to persuade Duryodhana. Duryodhana was also counselled by Gandhari to seek out Sri Krishna and make peace with the Pandavas. Duryodhana, however, did not take his mother’s advice into account. As a result of their covert agreement, Duryodhana, Dussasana, Karna, and Sakuni planned to imprison Sri Krishna. Satyaki, who had the ability to read people’s intentions through their body language, was able to decipher the wicked four’s scheme. He promptly warned their warriors stationed at the main gate and informed Sri Krishna about Duryodhana’s plan, among other things. Then he also told Vidura and Dhritarashtra about it.
Vidura brought Duryodhana and his brothers to the gathering at Dhritarashtra’s request. Dhritarashtra and Vidura both praised Sri Krishna once again and counselled him to follow the road of goodness. Then Sri Krishna flaunted his Viswarupa and mocked Duryodhana for his foolishness in trying to grab him. In response to Dhritarashtra’s request, Bhagwan Krishna gave him two invisible eyes to keep a check on the Viswarupa. The wise people were astounded upon learning this and gave worship to the Bhagwan. Later, Sri Krishna saw Kunti, his mother from his mother’s side. All of the events that took place in the Kauravas’ court were relayed to Kunti by Sri Krishna. At this command, Kunti sent her word to the Pandavas. She described the conversation between Vidula, a renowned royal lady, and her son on that particular day.
Krishna afterwards began from there after bowing to Kunti. He bid farewell to Bhishma and the other elders, forced Karna onto his chariot, and then travelled toward the city of Upaplavya with Satyaki. After Sri Krishna left, Bhishma and Drona attempted once more to persuade Duryodhana to reconcile with the Pandavas. Krishna instructed him to act like a brother around the Pandavas when they left Hastinapura together with Karna. He would gain from it. Karna, however, stated that he wanted to stick behind Duryodhana. They may meet once more, he suggested, if he won the fight. If not, they could only meet in heaven. After giving Krishna a hug and bidding him farewell, he descended from the chariot’s back and drove back to Hastinapura in his automobile.
Krishna and Satyaki travelled to Upaplavya. The imminent catastrophic events between the Kauravas and the Pandavas were announced by Vidura to Kunti. When worried Kunti encountered Karna, she introduced him as her oldest son and begged him to support the Pandavas. He refused her request, though, and threatened to fight with her boys instead. However, he made a commitment not to murder the other four brothers besides Arjuna, even if the chance presented itself. Thus, even after the fight, she would still have five boys.
With Karna if Arjuna were slain and with Arjuna if Karna were murdered, they would total five. Following that, Kunti and Karna parted ways. When Sri Krishna arrived in Upaplavya, he exactly told the Pandavas what had occurred at the Kauravas’ court and inspired them to go to war.
(7) Sainyaniryana Parva
This section has 9 chapters. Yudhishthira deduced from Sri Krishna’s remarks that the Kauravas wouldn’t relinquish the Pandavas their part of the kingdom without a war. War was coming soon. He revealed to his brothers that they likewise heard everything only in Krishna’s presence. They had seven army akshauhinis. To lead the seven akshauhinis would be Drupada, Virata, Dhrishtadyumna, Sikhandin, Satyaki, Chekitana, and Bhima. The Commander in Chief was a matter for decision. They should thus recommend candidates who have the necessary skills to lead the army. After hearing him out, Sahadeva advised Virata, Nakula recommended Drupada, Arjuna proposed Dhrishtadyumna, and Bhima suggested Sikhandi as having the necessary credentials.
When Yudhishthira inquired, Sri Krishna said that Dhrishtadyumna was deserving of the position of army commander. The Pandavas approved of his recommendation. The warriors enthusiastically geared up for battle. Drums and conches could be heard echoing across the entire area. Moving in the middle of the army was King Yudhishthira. He left behind the skilled medical staff. Along with other women, Draupadi followed him for a while before returning to Upaplavya. Following careful planning for troop placement, the Pandava army arrived at Kurukshetra.
Hiranvathi, a holy river with clean waters, once flowed there. After arriving there, Sri Krishna ordered the digging of a trench and sent men to protect it. Separately, thousands of tents were built to house the kings. As well as staying there, doctors brought their supplies. The tents were filled with all the materials. On the other side, Duryodhana likewise ordered the erecting of tents and commanded his warriors to set up camp. He instructed the monarchs to issue a proclamation immediately to the effect that the forces should advance for fight the next morning. There shouldn’t be any waiting. Sri Krishna said that the evil Kauravas were not acting in a correct manner with them when Yudhishthira questioned him about the proper course of action. The Pandavas did not want to give up all of their wealth in order to make peace with the Kauravas. Thus, a battle with them was inevitable. Then Yudhishthira gave the kings the command to get ready for battle.
The greatest, average, and lowest divisions of King Duryodhana’s eleven akshauhini army were positioned at the proper locations. There were a total of 18 army akshauhinis present at Kurukshetra. Kripacharya, Dronacharya, Aswatthama, Salya, Jayadratha, Sudakshina, Kritavarma, Karna, Bhurisravas, Sakuni, and Bahlika are the eleven leaders of the Kaurava army. Bhishma was appointed main commander at Duryodhana’s request. After seeing the Pandavas, Balarama parted ways with them and proceeded to pray in the pilgrimage sites close to the Saraswati River. He did not want to witness the Kurus family being wiped off. Sanjaya was questioned by Dhritarashtra on the configuration of the Kaurava and Pandava armies. Sanjaya instructed him to pay attention to everything.
(8) Uluka-Duta-Agamana Parva
There are 5 chapters in this parva. Duryodhana resolved to send Uluka, the son of Sakuni, as a messenger to the Pandavas after private discussions with Karna, Dussasana, and Sakuni.
To deliver the word to the Pandavas alone in the presence of Sri Krishna, he gave Uluka a private phone call and instructed him to do so. The message announced the start of the epic conflict between the Kurus and the Pandavas. Any vows made by the Pandavas may be kept.
They were themselves moral persons, which is why they were acting in a bad manner. They simply requested five villages. But Duryodhana deliberately turned them away. Duryodhana sought to infuriate the Pandavas in any way so that he might engage them in combat. He challenged them to come battle beside Sri Krishna.
Uluka then proceeded to the Pandava camp and encountered Yudhishthira. He informed him of all Duryodhana had said. The message was answered by the irate Pandavas. Duryodhana received a message from Sri Krishna asking him to appear on the battlefield the very next day and display his ability. After receiving the information from Uluka, Duryodhana gave his troops the command to start the war the following morning before daybreak. Under Dhrishtadyumna’s direction, Yudhishthira also organised his men for combat.
(9) Sthatistha Samkhyana Parva
This Parva contains 8 chapters. Having been appointed the supreme commander, Bhishma informed Duryodhana that he was familiar with the armies of the gods, Gandharvas, and mankind. With such talent, he might hold the Pandavas in his spell. He would defend Duryodhana’s troops while fighting alongside the Pandavas. Duryodhana’s mental suffering ought to be over as a result. The information on the Rathis and Atirathas in his army was then what Duryodhana needed to know. Following his description of them, Bhishma then provided a history of the Pandava soldiers. He said that Sikhandin was once a lady who subsequently changed into a male. in order to avoid a battle. He would assassinate all other kings who took part in the conflict, but he would never assassinate the sons of Kunti.
(10) Ambopakhyana Parva
This section has 24 chapters. Duryodhana questioned Bhishma as to why he would not execute the kings and release them. Then Bhishma informed him about the Amba event.
Following the passing of his father Santanu, Bhishma honoured his pledge and crowned Chitrangada. He appointed his brother Vichitravirya to rule when the latter passed away. Bhishma made the decision to bring Vichitravirya’s bride and marry her. After defeating all other kings, he sent his mother Satyavati the three daughters of the Kasi monarch, Amba, Ambika, and Ambalika, to perform the marriage of his brother with them. However, Amba, who had a soft spot for the Salva king, requested Bhishma’s permission before visiting him. She made the decision to exact revenge on Bhishma, who was the main reason for her tragedy, when the king of Salva rejected her, and she spent the night at the sages’ hermitage. Saikhavatya, an elderly sage, gave her consolation. She sought sanctuary with Parasurama under the direction of her maternal grandpa Hotravahana. In a fierce conflict, Parasurama and Bhishma engaged. Bhishma ultimately desired to employ the Prasvapanastra. However, with Narada’s intervention, both of them put an end to their altercation. Princess Amba made a serious atonement. With the help of it, she transformed into a river named Amba with half of her body and gave birth to a girl in Vatsadesa with the other. She also made enormous penance to murder Bhishma at that birth. She requested a blessing when Siva came in front of her: the demise of Bhishma. Siva assured her that her wish will come true. She was a lady when she was born, but subsequently changed into a man. In that birth, she set herself ablaze on the funeral pyre beside the Yamuna River. After engaging in rigorous penance, the childless monarch Drupada prayed to Siva for a son so that he may exact retribution on Bhishma. Siva then predicted that the monarch would marry a female who would eventually turn into a man.
The Drupada queen gave birth to a female child. The king, however, revealed that it was a boy. Through Narada, only Bhishma learned about Sikhandin. The princess of the Dasarnas and Sikhandin were wed when they were of legal age. Hiranyavarma, the ruler of the Dasarnas, became enraged after learning the truth about Sikhandin.
Sikhandini ventured into the woods and asked a yaksha by the name of Sthunakarna to help her find relief from her suffering. The yaksha then briefly traded his manhood for her femininity. That infuriated Kubera, who cursed the yaksha to remain a lady, and Sikhandini changed into Sikhandin, a male. Bhishma made the decision to avoid killing him in combat since he was once a girl. Both the Kauravas’ and the Pandavas’ armies had departed for battle.
You can read other chapters from the table below. Click on the respective link to understand about the summary of that book/section of Mahabharata.
Mahabharat All Chapters Summary Guide
|1) Adi Parva||10) Sauptika Parva|
|2) Sabha Parva||11) Stri Parva|
|3) Vana Parva||12) Shanti Parva|
|4) Virata Parva||13) Anushasana Parva|
|5) Udhyoga Parva||14) Ashvamedha Parva|
|6) Bhishma Parva||15) Ashramavasika Parva|
|7) Drona Parva||16) Mausala Parva|
|8) Karna Parva||17) Mahaprasthanika Parva|
|9) Shalya Parva||18) Swaraga Arohana Parva|