Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata Purana): Vedic Science of Creation, Universe, Space and Cosmology

According to the scriptural description of the brahmand the entire earth planet is called Bharatvarsh, but particularly the area of the continent that lies south of the Himalayas is called Bharatvarsh. It is also called Aryavart. The inhabitants of Aryavart are called the Aryans as referred to in the Rigved. Thus, the words Bhartiya or Aryans were both used for the inhabitants of Bharatvarsh or Aryavart, however, the words Bhartiya and Bharatvarsh were more popular.

The Srimad-Bhagavatam presents an earth-centered conception of the cosmos. At first glance the cosmology seems foreign, but a closer look reveals that not only does the cosmology of the Bhagavatam describe the world of our experience, but it also presents a much larger and more complete cosmological picture. It is explained with great detail and in-depth study can change the course of shallow theories famously followed by west scholars.

Bhagavata Purana: Hindu Science on Universe, Sun and Planets

Ancient Hindu Physics on Cosmos and Galaxy

The content here is compiled from various sources with the blessings and permissions of Bhagwan Krishna himself.

Vedic Cosmology: Creation of Universe and Planets

Some interesting Vedic facts revealed

The inquisitive human mind naturally yearns to understand the universe and man’s place within it. Today scientists rely on powerful telescopes and sophisticated computers to formulate cosmological theories. In former times, people got their information from traditional books of wisdom. Followers of the Vedic culture, for example, learned about the cosmos from scriptures like the Srimad-Bhagavatam, or Bhagavata Purana. But the Bhagavatam’s descriptions of the universe often baffle modern students of Vedic literature. Here Bhaktivedanta Institute scientist Sadaputa Dasa (Dr. Richard Thompson) suggests a framework for understanding the Bhagavatam’s descriptions that squares with our experience and modern discoveries.

Lord Krishna clearly stated in Srimad Bhagwatam that all these knowledge will be lost after 10,000 years of this age, Kaliyuga. Only to be revived again, nearing end of Kaliyuga. So we are lucky to be born in the first 10,000 years of this age, Kaliyuga, which is considered golden period.

Vedas Creation: srimad-bhagwatam-vedic-science
Vedas Creation: Each Planet Is Like Disc In An Arrangement Shown Here. Figure 1

The Srimad-Bhagavatam presents an earth-centered conception of the cosmos. At first glance the cosmology seems foreign, but a closer look reveals that not only does the cosmology of the Bhagavatam describe the world of our experience, but it also presents a much larger and more complete cosmological picture. I’ll explain.

The Srimad-Bhagavatam’s mode of presentation is very different from the familiar modern approach. Although the Bhagavatam’s “Earth” (disk- shaped Bhu-mandala) may look unrealistic, careful study shows that the Bhagavatam uses Bhu-mandala to represent at least four reasonable and consistent models: (1) a polar- projection map of the Earth globe, (2) a map of the solar system, (3) a topographical map of south-central Asia, and (4) a map of the celestial realm of the demigods.

Another view of multi-planed earth. Our most primitive senses can only see present earth.

Vedas Universe: srimad bhagwatam hindu science
Vedas Universe: The Side View of The Disc Like Earth (one slice of the several planes of placed worlds over each other). Figure 2

For Each planetary system, a definitive body is given by Lord Krishna to sustain in that Loka (planet).

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu remarked, “In every verse of Srimad-Bhagavatam and in every syllable, there are various meanings.”(Chaitanya-charitamrita, Madhya 24.318) This appears to be true, in particular, of the cosmological section of the Bhagavatam, and it is interesting to see how we can bring out and clarify some of the meanings with reference to modern astronomy.

Arrangement of planets in cosmos

Srimad Bhagavatam (Bhagavata Purana): How Structures are Arranged

When one structure is used to represent several things in a composite map, there are bound to be contradictions. But these do not cause a problem if we understand the underlying intent. We can draw a parallel with medieval paintings portraying several parts of a story in one composition. For example, Masaccio’s painting “The Tribute Money” shows Saint Peter in three parts of a Biblical story. We see him taking a coin from a fish, speaking to Jesus, and paying a tax collector. From a literal standpoint it is contradictory to have Saint Peter doing three things at once, yet each phase of the Biblical story makes sense in its own context.

[ Read Also Great Hindu Science on Mind, Body and Soul ]

A similar painting from India (as shown below this para) shows three parts of a story about Krishna. Such paintings contain apparent contradictions, such as images of one character in different places, but a person who understands the story line will not be disturbed by this. The same is true of the Bhagavatam, which uses one model to represent different features of the cosmos.

Vedic Cosmos in Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana
Vedic Cosmos: Lord Krishna Appearing In Several Places Providing Multi-Dimensional Planetary Systems, Thousands of Years Ago. The Cycle Also Shows The Cosmic System to be Trillions of Earth Years Old. Figure 3

The Fifth Canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam tells of innumerable universes. Each one is contained in a spherical shell surrounded by layers of elemental matter that mark the boundary between mundane space and the unlimited spiritual world.

[ Gita in HindiClick on the link for Complete Srimad Bhagwad Geeta in Hindi ]

The region within the shell (as shown in figure below) is called the Brahmanda, or “Brahma egg.” It contains an earth disk or plane—called Bhu-mandala—that divides it into an upper, heavenly half and a subterranean half, filled with water. Bhu-mandala is divided into a series of geographic features, traditionally called dvipas, or “islands,” varshas, or “regions,” and oceans.

Vedas Creation: Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana on Brahmand Universe
Vedic Creation: This Is How The Internal Structure of Planes Are Arranged (multi-planes representing multi-lokas). Figure 4

In the center of Bhu-mandala (shown below) is the circular “island” of Jambudvipa, with nine varsha subdivisions. These include Bharata-varsha, which can be understood in one sense as India and in another as the total area inhabited by human beings. In the center of Jambudvipa stands the cone-shaped Sumeru Mountain, which represents the world axis and is surmounted by the city of Brahma, the universal creator.

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Vedas Planets: Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana on Bhumandala
Vedic Science of Polar Projections: Location of  Bhumandalas (planes) As Per Greatest Hindu Text Srimad Bhagwatam. Figure 5

To any modern, educated person, this sounds like science fiction. But is it? Let’s consider the four ways of seeing the Bhagavatam’s descriptions of the Bhu- mandala.

We begin by discussing the interpretation of Bhu-mandala as a planisphere, or a polar-projection map of the Earth globe. This is the first model given by the Bhagavatam. A stereographic projection is an ancient method of mapping points on the surface of a sphere to points on a plane. We can use this method to map a modern Earth globe onto a plane, and the resulting flat projection is called a planisphere (Figure 5). We can likewise view Bhu-mandala as a stereographic projection of a globe (Figure 6). In India such globes exist. In the example shown here (Figure 7,), the land area between the equator and the mountain arc is Bharata-varsha, corresponding to greater India. India is well represented, but apart from a few references to neighboring places, this globe does not give a realistic map of the Earth. Its purpose was astronomical, rather than geographical.

Vedas Planets: Hindu science of Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana on Stereographic Earth
Vedas Universe: Hindu Science of Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana detailing Stereographic Earth. Figure 6

Srimad Bhagwatam : Inverse Stereographic Earth

According to Srimad Bhagwatam : Inverse Stereographic Earth 

Vedas Planets: inverse stereographic earth in Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana (Hindu Science)
Vedic Cosmology: Inverse Stereographic earth. Figure 7

Although the Bhagavatam doesn’t explicitly describe the Earth as a globe, it does so indirectly. For example, it points out that night prevails diametrically opposite to a point where it is day. Likewise, the sun sets at a point opposite where it rises. Therefore, the Bhagavatam does not present the naive view that the Earth is flat.

We can compare Bhu-mandala with an astronomical instrument called an astrolabe, popular in the Middle Ages. On the astrolabe, an off-centered circle represents the orbit of the sun—the ecliptic. The Earth is represented in stereographic projection on a flat plate, called the mater. The ecliptic circle and important stars are represented on another plate, called the rete. Different planetary orbits could likewise be represented by different plates, and these would be seen projected onto the Earth plate when one looks down on the instrument.

The Bhagavatam similarly presents the orbits of the sun, the moon, planets, and important stars on a series of planes parallel to Bhu-mandala.

Seeing Bhu-mandala as a polar projection is one example of how it doesn’t represent a flat Earth.

Vedas Galaxy: Parallel Earth Planes / Bhu-mandala as a Map of the Solar System in Srimad Bhagavatam
Vedic Cosmology of Parallel Earth Planes: Bhu-mandala as a Map of the Solar System. Figure 8

Vedic Bhumandala: The Complete Model of Earth

Here’s another way to look at Bhu-mandala that also shows that it’s not a flat-Earth model.

Descriptions of Bhu-mandala have features that identify it as a model of the solar system. In the previous section I interpreted Bhu-mandala as a planisphere map. But now, we’ll take it as a literal plane. When we do this, it looks at first like we’re back to the naive flat Earth, with the bowl of the sky above and the underworld below.

The scholars Giorgio de Santillana and Hertha von Dechend carried out an intensive study of so called myths and traditions and concluded that the so-called flat Earth of ancient times originally represented the plane of the ecliptic (the orbit of the sun) and not the Earth on which we stand. Later on, according to de Santillana and von Dechend, the original cosmic understanding of the earth was apparently lost, and the Earth beneath our feet was taken literally as a flat plate. In India, the earth of the Puranas has often been taken as literally flat. But the details given in the Bhagavatam show that its cosmology is much more sophisticated.

Not only does the Bhagavatam use the ecliptic model, but it turns out that the disk of Bhu-mandala corresponds in some detail to the solar system (Figure 8). The solar system is nearly flat. The sun, the moon, and the five traditionally known planets—Mercury through Saturn—all orbit nearly in the ecliptic plane. Thus Bhu- mandala does refer to something flat, but it’s not the Earth.

Vedas Galaxy: Srimad Bhagwatam Solar System
Vedic Galaxy: Solar System in Srimad Bhagwatam (Bhagavata Purana). Figure 9

One striking feature of the Bhagavatam’s descriptions has to do with size. If we compare Bhu-mandala with the Earth, the solar system out to Saturn, and the Milky Way galaxy, Bhu-mandala matches the solar system closely, while radically differing in size from Earth and the galaxy.

[ संपूर्ण श्रीमद भगवद्गीता हिंदी के लिए यहा क्लिक करे ]

Furthermore, the structures of Bhu-mandala correspond with the planetary orbits of the solar system (Figure 9). If we compare the rings of Bhu-mandala with the orbits of Mercury, Venus (Figure 10), Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, we find several close alignments that give weight to the hypothesis that Bhu-mandala was deliberately designed as a map of the solar system.

Vedic Cosmology: Bhu-mandala correspond with the planetary orbits of the solar system
Vedic Space Science: Bhu-mandala correspond with the planetary orbits of the solar system in Bhagavata Purana. Figure 10

Until recent times, astronomers generally underestimated the distance from the earth to the sun. In particular, Claudius Ptolemy, the greatest astronomer of classical antiquity, seriously underestimated the Earth-sun distance and the size of the solar system. It is remarkable, therefore, that the dimensions of Bhu-mandala in the Bhagavatam are consistent with modern data on the size of the sun’s orbit and the solar system as a whole.

So with blessings of Bhagwan Krishna, what lalit kumar haribhakt comprehends is that the framework of the solar system was created from simple cylinder sliced in to various forms and later given rigid shapes, they were magnetically placed with space-time manifestation where in each planet has different and unique rotational motion to be in sync with the solar system. All planets are placed in Mayic form (illusion) one after another and we can become citizen of these planets only as per our karma in this planet earth.

We cannot see them or visit them because we do not deserve or lacks right to see them, since we are under maya with limited senses, we cannot overcome our senses to reach those levels of planetary observations.

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This was just to suffice our very primitive material senses for scientificity. While as per Srimad Bhagwatam, the universes are created by mere imagination of Lord Krishna.

Vedas Planets: Srimad Bhagwatam Solar System In Milky Way
Vedic Planetarium: Bhagavata Purana (Srimad Bhagwatam) Solar System In Milky Way. Figure 11

Jambudvipa (Jambu Dweep), the central hub of Bhumandala, can be understood as a local topographical map of part of south- central Asia. This is the third of the four interpretations of Bhu-mandala. In the planisphere interpretation, Jambudvipa represents the northern hemisphere of the Earth globe. But the detailed geographic features of Jambudvipa do not match the geography of the northern hemisphere. They do, however, match part of the Earth.

Six horizontal and two vertical mountain chains divide Jambudvipa into nine regions, or varshas (see Figure 11). The southernmost region is called Bharata-varsha. Careful study shows that this map corresponds to India plus adjoining areas of south-central Asia. The first step in making this identification is to observe that the Bhagavatam assigns many rivers in India to Bharata- varsha. Thus Bharata-varsha represents India. The same can be said of many mountains in Bharata-varsha. In particular, the Bhagavatam places the Himalayas to the north of Bharata-varsha in Jambudvipa (Jambu Dweep) (see Figure 11).

Vedas Milky Way: Srimad Bhagwadtam: Jambudvipa South East Asia, Bharat Map
Vedas Creation: Srimad Bhagwadtam on Jambudvipa South East Asia, Bharat Map. Figure 12

A detailed study of Puranic accounts allows the other mountain ranges of Jambudvipa to be identified with mountain ranges in the region north of India. Although this region includes some of the most desolate and mountainous country in the world, it was nonetheless important in ancient times. For example, the famous Silk Road passes through this region. The Pamir Mountains can be identified with Mount Meru and Ilavrita-varsha, the square region in the center of Jambudvipa. (Note that Mount Meru does not represent the polar axis in this interpretation.)

The Universe of the Vedas: Jambudvipa and Bhu-mandala

Purans on Vedic Arrangement of Bhumandala and Places

Other Puranas give more geographical details that support this interpretation.

We can also understand Bhu-mandala as a map of the celestial realm of the demigods, or devas. One curious feature of Jambudvipa is that the Bhagavatam describes all of the varshas other than Bharata-varsha as heavenly realms, where the inhabitants live for ten thousand years without suffering. This has led some scholars to suppose that Indians used to imagine foreign lands as celestial paradises. But the Bhagavatam does refer to barbaric peoples outside India, such as Huns, Greeks, Turks, and Mongolians, who were hardly thought to live in paradise. One way around this is to suppose that Bharata-varsha includes the entire Earth globe, while the other eight varshas refer to celestial realms outside the Earth. This is a common understanding in India.

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But the simplest explanation for the heavenly features of Jambudvipa is that Bhu-mandala was also intended to represent the realm of the devas. Like the other interpretations we have considered, this one is based on a group of mutually consistent points in the cosmology of the Bhagavatam.

First of all, consider the very large sizes of mountains and land areas in Jambudvipa. For example, India is said to be 72,000 miles (9,000 yojanas) from north to south, or nearly three times the circumference of the Earth. Likewise, the Himalayas are said to be 80,000 miles high.

People in India in ancient times used to go in pilgrimage on foot from one end of India to the other, so they knew how large India is. Why does the Bhagavatam give such unrealistic distances? The answer is that Jambudvipa doubles as a model of the heavenly realm, in which everything is on a superhuman scale. The Bhagavatam portrays the demigods and other divine beings that inhabit this realm to be correspondingly large. Figure 12 below shows Lord Siva in comparison with Europe, according to one text of the Bhagavatam.

Vedas Galaxy: Srimad Bhagwatam: Celstial Plane of Lord Shiva
Vedic Cosmology: Srimad Bhagwatam: Celstial Plane of Lord Shiva. Figure 13

Why would the Bhagavatam describe Jambudvipa as both part of the earth and part of the celestial realm? Because there’s a connection between the two. To understand, let’s consider the idea of parallel worlds. By siddhis, or mystic perfections, one can take shortcuts across space. This is illustrated by a story from the Bhagavatam in which the mystic yogini Citralekha abducts Aniruddha from his bed in Dvaraka and transports him mystically to a distant city (Figure 13).

Srimad Bhagwatam: Aniruddha Abducted - Divine Example of Parallel World
Vedic Hindu Science of Parallel World: In Srimad Bhagwatam (Bhagavata Purana), Aniruddha Abducted – Divine Example of Parallel World. Figure 14

Besides moving from one place to another in ordinary space, the mystic siddhis enable one to travel in the all- pervading ether or to enter another continuum. The classical example of a parallel continuum is Krishna’s transcendental realm of Vrindavan, said to be unlimitedly expansive and to exist in parallel to the finite, earthly Vrindavan in India.

Vedic Cosmology: Dweep in Vedic Universe

Vedas Planets and Continents: Bhumandala and Bhuloka

Vedic Universe Bhumandala Bhuloka
Vedic Science: Meru and Types of Dweep in Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana). Figure 15

Vedas Planets and Continents: Pushkar Dweep Composition

Vedas Universe: Pushkar Dweep information
Vedic Universe and Dweep: Meru and Types of Dweep in Srimad Bhagavatam Bhagavata Purana). Figure 16

Vedic Time Travel and Inter-dimension Journey

Satyuga people travel inter-planetary systems with their body and soul

Vedas strongly believe in elevating Soul and expanding Consciousness – inter-dimensional travel and inter-planet journeys yields no benefit to Earthlings. They are gifted with adequate resources to live peacefully here, engaging efforts for inter-planetary is futile. Conserving Earth’s natural resources is humanity’s first responsibility – for human race and all creatures of Earth.

The Sanskrit literature abounds with stories of parallel worlds. For example, the Mahabharata tells the story of how the Naga princess Ulupi abducted Arjuna while he was bathing in the Ganges River (Figure 14). Ulupi pulled Arjuna down not to the riverbed, as we would expect, but into the kingdom of the Nagas (celestial snakelike beings), which exists in another dimension.

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Vedic Space Science: Ulupi Abducting Arjun To Next Dimension Planet (snake kingdom, Naga Planes)
Vedic Space Science: Ulupi Abducting Arjun To Next Dimension Planet (snake kingdom, Naga Planes). Figure 17

Mystical travel explains how the worlds of the devas are connected with our world. In particular, it explains how Jambudvipa, as a celestial realm of devas, is connected with Jambudvipa as the Earth or part of the Earth. Thus the double model of Jambudvipa makes sense in terms of the Puranic understanding of the siddhis.

Concluding Observations: The Vertical Dimension in Bhagavata Cosmology

Vedic Cosmology and Hindu Science on Universe

For centuries the cosmology of the Bhagavatam has seemed incomprehensible to most observers, encouraging many people either to summarily reject it or to accept it literally with unquestioning faith. If we take it literally, the cosmology of the Bhagavatam not only differs from modern astronomy, but, more important, it also suffers from internal contradictions and violations of common sense. These very contradictions, however, point the way to a different understanding of Bhagavata cosmology in which it emerges as a deep and scientifically sophisticated system of thought. The contradictions show that they are caused by overlapping self-consistent interpretations that use the same textual elements to expound different ideas.

Each of the four interpretations, presented here deserves to be taken seriously because each is supported by many points in the text that are consistent with one another while agreeing with modern astronomy. I’ve applied the context-sensitive or multiple aspect approach, in which the same subject has different meanings in different contexts. This approach allows for the greatest amount of information to be stored in a picture or text, reducing the work required by the artist or writer. At the same time, it means that the work cannot be taken literally as a one-to-one model of reality, and it requires the viewer or reader to understand the different relevant contexts. This can be difficult when knowledge of context is lost over long periods of time.

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In the Bhagavatam, the context-sensitive approach was rendered particularly appropriate by the conviction that reality, in the ultimate issue, is avak-manasam, or beyond the reach of the mundane mind or words. This implies that a literal, one-to-one model of reality is unattainable, and so one may as well pack as much meaning as possible into a necessarily incomplete description of the universe. The cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana is a sophisticated system of thought, with multiple layers of meaning, both physical and metaphysical. It combines practical understanding of astronomy with spiritual conceptions to produce a meaningful picture of the universe and reality.

Ancient scientists created sand circles based on design of Shree Yantra to communicate with Bhagwan (as seen in the bottom right of the image).

Super scientists following vedic sound principles create massive crop circles today, within few seconds, across the globe also represent shapes of Srimad Bhagwatam. The power of Shabd Brahman and Vedic sound energize plants/crops and without harming them create great Vedic designs (Remember these are made using high intensity Vedic mantras).

There are also contradictions that such crop circles are being made by super intelligence syndicates, who live among us, that control our mother earth to maintain peace and harmony and follow Bhagwan Krishna. They are supposed to be custodians of earth who are working under supervision of demigods of Bhagwan Krishna.

Vedas Planetarium Universe: Shrimad Bhagavatam Crop Circles - Vedic Sound Technology Used
Vedic Cosmology of Hindu Science: As per Bhagavata Purana (Shrimad Bhagavatam) for Crop Circles Vedic Sound Technology Used. Figure 18

This further suggest that even today the Hindu God, Bhagwan Krishna is guiding us all through his mystical powers to know real truth of our existence. श्री कृष्ण के कृपा से लिखा गया लेख, Some Saabhar: भागवत पुराण, वेदो, संहिताओं के सार के सार और कृष्णा.कॉम

A Brief Video Summarizing Cosmic Concepts of Srimad Bhagwatam

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  • h ramachandra reddy says:

    we were told three modes yhat is three gunas. Combination of the in different proportions decides tature of individual creation from smallest to colosual sized individual from mobile and immobile creation. my question is. why this type variation was introduced by GOD the immortal.Is he playing with his creations or to find how the whole creatrd beings interact and evolve ?

  • Sanjyothi says:

    This was very informative. Thank you. Truly our puranas hold the answers to everything already. If we had considered all that it says and then build our life and technology, we would have been much ahead of time and with the divine sense of oneness. Maybe without trying to compare the vedic cosmology and modern theories, if we just considered earth as flat according to our puranas and experienced the phenomenal life happenings, planet movement etc, it will still make sense. After all, no one who is authentic enough has really gone beyond this plane and truly shown the big picture of earth and we ourselves haven’t seen it from afar either. If we are open to all interpretations, we might derive at the truth by our own conscious thinking.
    Thank you for this article.

  • Dear HariBhakt ji, I am impressed by your article. Many non Hindu people challenge me with questions regarding vedic cosmology. I wish to learn more about the subject. Kindly mail me for correspondence. Regards, pranaams.

    • Shubham Garg says:

      Go to the and in the “ebooks & Audio books” section, you can download all the authentic Vedic scriptures explained in simplified language in scanned format as well as pdf format. For Vedic Cosmology and astronomy, please download all the volumes of 5th Canto of the Srimad Bhagwatam.


  • why this ancient knowledge can get a shape of Books. we should publish books. We do it but very low level. We should market them with some good publisher. When Amish book Shiva trilogy can be a mile stone in the heart of indian, then other knowledge of our cutler can be. But these texts are rarely available in books.
    We should give them shape to reach people.

    A great job yet to done.

    Deepak K

    • Lalit Kumar Haribhakt says:

      Radhe Radhe Deepak Ji,

      Internet is one of the great medium to connect with youth of today. Having website lets one give free information to all. My humble request please do not compare factual Vedic texts with Amish’s books – which are fake, figment of imagination and have content that mis-construe Vedic history and Puranas.

      We are in Kaliyuga and no surprises that such fake tales are getting popularity among masses.

      Jai Shree Krishn

      • Hara Hara Mahadeva says:

        yes sir,
        There are millions of fake pages done by barbaric Islam to promote that anti human cult in European Countries. Nehru family is a Muslim family I guess. That Family is the performer of Islamisation of not only Bhaarath but also entire world. Nehru family is always cursed to die a painful death. Any ways very good article Lalit Kumar Haribhakt.
        Jai Sree Krishna

  • Regarding Vedic Cosmology … and how it can be understood and APPLIED to modern day life, see Puranic Cosmology Updated.