Prithviraj Chauhan was a Rajput king who ruled the kingdoms of Ajmer and Delhi in northern India in 12th century; he was one of the last independent Hindu kings to sit upon the throne of Delhi. Also known as Rai Pithora, he was a Rajput king hailing from the Chauhan dynasty. Born as the son of Someshwar Chauhan, the king of Ajmer, Prithviraj started displaying signs of his greatness at an early age. He was a very brave and intelligent child blessed with sharp military skills. He practiced hard shabd bhedi archery skills since childhood. As a young boy he could accurately hit targets only on the basis of its sounds. After the death of his father in a battle in 1179, Prithviraj Chauhan succeeded the throne. He ruled over the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi, he inherited from his maternal grandfather, Arkpal or Anangpal III of the Tomara dynasty. As the king, he set out on several campaigns to expand his territories and became well-known as a valiant and courageous warrior. His battles with Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori are especially well-known as is the heroics of his elopement with Sanyukta, the daughter of Raja Jaichandra of Kannauj.
Prithviraj Chouhan, A Brave Hindu King
- 1 Prithviraj Chouhan, A Brave Hindu King
- 1.1 Prithviraj Chauhan’s Rivalry with Jaichand
- 1.2 Prithiviraj Chauhan’s Love Interest: Jaichandra’s Daughter Sanyogita’s Feelings for Prithiviraj
- 1.3 Prithviraj Chauhan’s Marriage: The Consentful Elopement of Sanyogita By Prithviraj
- 1.4 Prithviraj Chauhan and Treachery By Fellow Hindu Rajputs
- 1.5 Mahmud Ghori, A Dirty Islamic Creature in Human Form
- 1.6 Prithviraj Chauhan’s Ashes
- 1.7 Prithviraj Chauhan Life Timelines
Prithviraj Chauhan’s Rivalry with Jaichand
In Jaichandra’s glory days, a rival Rajput clan had established itself in Delhi (Pithoragarh). The ruler there was Prithviraj Chouhan. Prithviraj was a courageous, chivalrous and an extremely fearless human. After ceaseless military campaigns, Pritiviraj extended his original kingdom of Sambhar (Shakambara) to Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Eastern Punjab. He ruled from his twin capitals at Delhi and Ajmer. His fast rise caught the envy of the then powerful ruler Jaichandra Gahadwala and there was a lot of ill-feeling between the two. Jaichandra was envious on the quick popularity of Prithviraj Chauhan.
Prithiviraj Chauhan’s Love Interest: Jaichandra’s Daughter Sanyogita’s Feelings for Prithiviraj
The history of Prithviraj’s bold exploits spread far and wide in the country and he was the center of much discussion in the circle of the nobility. News of bravery spread among Gahadwala clan, and Sanyogita, the daughter of Jaichandra Gahadwala fell secretly in love with Prithiviraj and she started a secret poetic correspondence with him. Her father the haughty Jaichandra got information of this affair and he decided to teach his daughter and her upstart lover a lesson. So he arranged a Swayamwar, a ceremony where a Hindu bride had right to choose Groom of her choice and she could select her husband from the assembled eligible princes of various states. She had the right to garland the prince to become his queen. This was an ancient Hindu custom among Royal dynasties. However, Jaichandra abused this freedom of her daughter, he invited all the big and small princes of the country to Kannauj for the royal Swayamwar. But he deliberately ignored the famous Prithiviraj. To add insult to injury, he even made a statue of Prithviraj and kept him as a dwarpal (doorman) at the gate.
Prithviraj Chauhan’s Marriage: The Consentful Elopement of Sanyogita By Prithviraj
Prithviraj knew the dubious ploy of Jaichandra and he confided a plan to his lover Sanyogita.
On the Swayamwar day, Sanyogita walked down the aisle where the royals had assembled and bypassed all of them only to reach the door and garland the statue of Pritiviraj as a doorman. The assemblage was stunned at this brash act of hers. They felt insulted as princes were missed and lifeless statue was respected. But what shocked them and her father Jaichandra further was the next thing that happened.
Prithviraj who was hiding behind the statue, also in the garb of a doorman, whisked Sanyogita away and put her up on his steed to make a fast getaway to his capital at Delhi.
Prithviraj Chauhan and Treachery By Fellow Hindu Rajputs
Conflict Among Rajputs Lead to Demise of Raputana Ruling
Jaichandra and his army gave earnest chase and in the resultant string of battles between the two kingdoms fought between 1189 and 1190, both of them sufferred heavily. While the conflict escalated, an ugly invader, Mahmud, who was from Ghor in Afghanistan had grown powerful after capture of Ghazni, subsequently attacked the Ghaznavid Governor of Punjab and defeated him. The kingdom of Mahmud Ghori (also known as Muhammad of Ghor) now stretched up to the domains of Prithviraj Chouhan. A major clash was inevitable. Almost all terrorist mughals and invaders had Muhammad in their name as if to glorify the terrorist who founded their satanic cult.
Victory of Brave Prithviraj Chouhan in Battle of Tarain 1191 C.E.
Mahmud Ghori threw the gauntlet by laying siege to the fortress of Bhatinda in East Punjab which was on the frontier of Prithviraj’s domains. Hindus always fought following Vedic code of battle – fighting on days, between Sunrise and Sunset. But coward muslims always attacked at night when Hindu kings and soldiers were treating their wounded sainiks. Sudden night attack by cruel Mahmud surprised Prithviraj and his army so his minister appealed for help from Jaichandra but it was scornfully rejected by the envious father-in-law. However undaunted Prithviraj marched on to Bhatinda and met his enemy at a place called Tarain (also called Taraori) near the ancient town of Thanesar. In face of the persistent Rajput attacks, the battle was won as the Muslim army broke ranks and fled leaving their general Mahmud Ghori as a prisoner in Prithviraj’s hands.
Mahmud Ghori was brought in chains to Pithoragarh – Prithviraj’s capital and he begged his victor for the mercy and release. He knelt down on his feet and praised him comparing his mightyness to Allah. Suggesting that he deserves mercy as per Vedic laws of Bharat. Prithviraj’s ministers advised against pardoning the aggressor as he himself is not sharnagat king of neighbor state but a foreign invader. But the chivalrous and valiant Prithviraj thought otherwise and respectfully released the vanquished Ghori.
Prithviraj Chouhan’s Fault: Defeat of Prithviraj Chouhan and His Mercy at the Final Battle of Tarain 1192 C.E.
Vedic Hindu Dharma always taught to treat deserving enemies with gruesome death. Bheem killed Dusashan and drank blood from his chest while he was still alive to fulfill promise he gave to Devi Draupadi. Prithviraj Chauhan’s blunder was, he gave Vedic treatment to inhuman muslims like Muhammad Ghori. Sanatan Dharma texts clearly state that mercy is bestowed upon those who respect and reflect Vedic humanistic values. Danavs and muslim terrorists like Muhammad Ghori deserve to be killed. Prithviraj Chauhan committed huge mistake which few centuries back Nagabhata was about to make but Takshak stopped him.
Prithviraj Chauhan pardoned Mahmud Ghori when he kept his hand on Quran and asked for forgiveness, bowing down to Hindu King. Little did the Hindu warrior knew that following same terror manual Quran he was performing Taqiyya to later deceive him.
True to being a muslim, Mahmud returned the merciful gesture of Prithviraj with his sacrilegious attack at night in 1192 CE. As happened million times before, a believer of terror manual Quran backstabbed a gullible Hindu again. Ghori attacked 17th time on Prithviraj with a stronger army and guilfully defeated him by attacking the Rajput army before daybreak. This time Rajputs were busy with internal conflicts, the resources were drained due to infighting among Rajputs. The defeated Prithviraj was pursued up to his capital and in chains he was taken as a captive to Ghor in Afghanistan.
Blinding of a Lion and His Insult by Muslims (Mlecchas)
The agony of Prithiviraj does not end here. As a prisoner in Ghor, he was marched in the city, dragged in the court of Mahmud daily and insulted, and tortured to convert to gangster cult islam.
Prithviraj was presented before Mahmud, wherein he looked Ghori straight into the eyes. Unlike coward muslim invader, the brave Hindu Rajput never asked for forgiveness. The daring act of looking directly into eyes of Mahmud disturbed the mleccha a lot.
One day Ghori ordered him to lower his eyes, whereupon a defiant Prithviraj scornfully told him how he had treated Ghori as a prisoner and he is alive because of the mercy of him and further added that the eyelids of a Hindu Rajput’s eyes are lowered only in death.
On hearing this, Ghori got enraged and ordered that Prithviraj’s eyes be burnt with red hot iron rods.
After torturing and gouging out his eyes, Prithviraj was again regularly brought to the court to be taunted by Ghori and his courtiers. The muslim courtiers used to abuse with slangs and mock culture of Bharat as they considered Prithviraj, an infidel, Kafir, who idol worshiped Maa Bhavani and Bhagwan Shiv.
In those days Prithiviraj was joined by his former biographer Chand Bardai, who had composed a ballad-biography on Prithviraj in the name of Prithviraj Raso (Songs of Prithviraj). Chand Bardai told Prithiviraj, that he should avenge Ghori’s betrayal and daily insults.
Prithviraj Avenges the Insult with Shabd Bhedi Baan
The two got an opportunity when Ghori announced a game of Archery. On the advice of Chand Bardai, Prithviraj, who was then at court said he would also like to participate. On hearing his suggestion, the courtiers guffawed and laughed at him and he was taunted by Ghori as to how he could participate when he could not see. Whereupon, Prithiviraj told Mahmud Ghori to order him to shoot, and he would reach his target. Ghori became suspicious and asked Prithviraj why he wanted Ghori himself to order and not anyone else. On behalf of Prithiviraj, Chand Bardai told Ghori that he as a king would not accept orders from anyone other than a king. His ego satisfied, Mahmud Ghori agreed.
On the said day, Ghori sitting in his royal enclosure had Prithviraj brought to the ground and had him unchained first time for the event. On Ghori’s ordering Prithviraj to shoot, Prithviraj turned in the direction from where he heard Ghori speak and struck Ghori dead with his arrow. This event is beautifully described by Chand Bardai in the couplet, “Dus kadam aggey, bees kadam daey, baitha hai Sultan. Ab mat chuko Chouhan, chala do apna baan.” (Ten feet ahead of you and twenty feet to your right, is seated the Sultan, now do not miss him Chouhan, release your baan – arrow).
The last Hindu ruler of Delhi for longest period, Prithviraj Chouhan’s sudden attack killed the Mleccha Mahmud and that is why he was later murdered by the ministers of Mleccha invader. They did not even allow Prithviraj to have last rites according to Hindu rituals, the mlecchas buried him in the grave nearby Mahmud’s tomb. They started the practice of spitting, insulting the grave of Prithviraj Chauhan, a evil tradition which is practiced even today. The fall of Great Prithviraj led to rise of melccha invasion and Bharat remain under muslim regime for next 700 years, before british terrorism dethroned mlecchas.
There were some brave Hindu kings who came close to freeing Delhi during the seven centuries of Muslim rule, they were Rana Anang Pal Toumar, Rana Kumbha, Raja Maaldev Rathod, Veer Durgadas Rathod, Maharao Shekhaji, Rana Sanga in 1527, Raja (Hemu) Vikramaditya in around 1565 (2nd battle of Panipat), and Shrimant Vishwas Rao who was the Peshwa‘s son and was co-commander of the Maratha forces in the 3rd battle of Panipat in 1761.
Mahmud Ghori, A Dirty Islamic Creature in Human Form
How Poet Vajishwar Described Mahmud Ghori
Prithviraj court poet Vajishwar personally witnessed ugly Ghori. Vajishwar writes of Muhammad Ghori that he never saw such an ugly creature in human form:
“Cruel Ghori’s face was like a Gorilla and he had steel-like body. His eyes were so narrow and piercing that they might have bored a hole in a brazen vessel, and his stench was more horrible than his dark color. His head was completely bald and his cheeks resembled leather bottles full of wrinkles and knots. His nose was too long and his nostrils resembled rotting graves. His beard was of extravagant length, but he had no moustache. His chest was covered with lice which looked like sesame growing on a bad soil. His lean body, indeed, were covered with these insects, and his skin was as rough-grained as shagreen leather, fit only to be converted into shoes.”
Prithviraj Chauhan’s Ashes
A Hindu Rajput Bought Ashes of Hindu King Back Home
Prithviraj Chauhan was buried in Afghanistan itself and there are many petitions to bring his remains back. This is mostly fueled by the fact that it is a tradition in Afghanistan that whoever visits Ghori’s tomb ‘insults’ Chauhan’s grave first by either hitting the grave with slippers or jumping over it and then entering the grave of Ghori.
However Sher Singh Rana who was in Tihar Jail serving sentence of killing Phoolan Devi was angry when he came to know that the grave of Hindu Samrat Prithviraj Chavan was being insulted by hitting shoes before entering the tomb of Mahmud Ghazni. He decided to flee & bring back the grave of Prithviraj Chauhan from Afghanistan.
Sher Singh Rana decided to go on mission escaped Tihar jail one of the Asia’s highest security jail to get back India’s pride & respect.
Sher Singh Rana went searching for the king’s “grave” — he admitted to his interrogators he had little idea about the location. Only, he had heard that people disrespected the king’s “resting place” and “that hurt” him the most.
After touring Kandahar, Kabul and Herat, he finally reached Ghazni. On the outskirts of Ghazni, at a small village called Deak, he claimed to have found the tomb of Muhammed Ghori. A few metres away lay Prithviraj Chauhan’s tomb. Rana said he convinced the locals that he had come from Pakistan to restore Ghori’s tomb. On the sly, he dug Chauhan’s “grave” and collected sand from it. He even got his “achievement” recorded on video and snapped pictures.
In April 2005, he was back in India. He sent the ‘ashes’ through courier to Etawah and organised a function there with the help of local politicians. Rana’s mother, Satwati Devi, was the chief guest. On Tuesday, his mother hailed his son as the “pride of the country”. “My son has only served this country. He brought the remains of Prithviraj Chauhan to India,The whole India should feel proud of him.” she said.
However, Indian government should bluntly ask Afghanistan government to remove Grave of Prithviraj Chauhan and with dignity offer all the ashes respectfully to us so that a memorial of Hindu Samrat can be constructed here in Bharat. Also last rites with Vedic puja should be performed to restore the dignity of our great emperor Prithviraj Chauhan. Major cities of Afghanistan are reconstructed on our tax payers money, we have every right to order Afghanistan govt to fulfill our assertion.
Prithviraj Chauhan Life Timelines
Based on demand from readers, we are presenting major incidents based timelines of Prithviraj Chauhan’s life. The compilation below is sourced from different historians so this may vary with upper portion of the article.
One of the bravest Rajput kings ever was Prithviraj III, often known as Prithviraj Chauhan or Rai Pithora. He is renowned for ruling the Sapada Baksha, a typical Chahamana province, under the Chauhan dynasty. He ruled over sections of modern-day Punjab, Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh. Despite maintaining Ajmer as his headquarters, he is frequently referred to in folklore as the ruler of Delhi, the country’s political hub.
Prithviraj Chauhan Material Life Interests
Sanyukta was the daughter of Raja Jaichand, the ruler of Kannauj. The same woman with whom Prithviraj Chauhan fell in love. Due to this, and because he did not want Prithviraj to marry his daughter, the king of Kannauj organised a “swayamvara” for her. Except for Prithviraj, he invited every prince. Sanyukta turned down all other princes and eventually escaped with Prithviraj to Delhi, where they later were married, even though he didn’t ask him to disrespect Prithviraj.
Samyukta, also called Sanyogita or Sanjukta, was youngest and one of Prithviraj Chauhan’s three wives. Their story is India’s most well-known romances from the mediaeval times as a successful love tale.
Prithviraj Chauhan’s Fightback Against the Muslim Ghurid Terrorism Dynasty
It is well known that Prithviraj Chauhan was a valiant warrior king who heroically opposed Muhammad of Ghor, the head of the Muslim Ghurid dynasty, with all his might. Prithviraj was beaten by the Ghurids in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 CE, and following his loss, he was put to death. It is seen as a turning point in the Islamic conquest of India because he was defeated at the second battle of Tarain.
Prithviraj Chauhan Personal Information
Full Name: Indrajit Chauhan Prithviraja III
Nick name by People: Prithviraj Chauhan given by praja were Rai Pithora
City Named after him: Qila Rai Pithora, Lal Kot
Name of the father: Someshvara Chauhan
Major Achievements: Won many wars without support from other kings. Tarain battles are significant battles.
Birth of Prithviraj Chauhan
Prithviraj Chauhan was born on the twelfth day of Jyeshtha, the second month in the Hindu calendar, which corresponds to May-June on the Gregorian calendar, according to the well-known eulogistic Sanskrit poem. Prithviraj Chauhan’s mother was queen Karpuradevi, a Kalachuri princess, and his father was Someshvara, the king of Chahamana. While the precise year of Prithviraj Chauhan’s birth is not mentioned in the Sanskrit epic poem “Prithviraj Vijaya,” it does discuss certain planetary configurations at the time of Prithviraj’s birth. Prithviraj Chauhan is thought to have been born in 1166 CE thanks to an estimate made by Indian indologist Dasharatha Sharma using the indicated planetary position.
Knowledge and Early Life of Prithviraj Chauhan
In Gujarat, where his father Someshvara was raised by his maternal relations, Prithviraj Chauhan and his younger brother were both raised. Prithviraj Chauhan had a good education. It says he was fluent in six languages. It appears that Prithviraj Raso exaggerated when he said that Prithviraj had learnt 14 languages. In addition, Prithviraj Raso has said that he is an expert in a variety of fields, including arithmetic, medicine, history, the military, defence, painting, religion, and philosophy. The narrative asserts that Prithviraj Chauhan was an expert archer as well. Both texts assert that Prithviraj showed an early passion in combat and was able to pick up the challenging military abilities rapidly because of this.
Indrajit Prithviraj Chauhan’s Reign Expansion
When Prithviraj II passed away, Someshvara, the father of Prithviraj Chauhan, was anointed king of Chahamana. At the time, Prithviraj was just 11 years old. When Someshvara died in 1177 CE, 11-year-old Prithviraj Chauhan succeeded to the kingdom that year with his mother serving as regent. Prithviraj Chauhan’s mother oversaw administration in the early years of his reign as king, with assistance from the regency council. This reminds us how mother Jijbai raised Shivaji while also taking interest in administration of the kingdom.
Prithviraj Chauhan’s Early Reign and His Important Ministers
A couple of devoted ministers helped Prithviraj in his early years as the young king by helping him administer the country.
According to the Hammira Mahakavya, Someshvara put Prithviraj in power before retiring to the jungle. Prithviraj’s mother oversaw the government throughout his formative years as king, with help from a regency council.
During this time, Kadambavasa, also known as Kaimasa or Kailash, served as the country’s chief minister. He was portrayed in folklore as a capable minister and soldier who dedicated his life to the development of the young monarch. Two different references claim that Kadambavasa was later murdered by Prithviraj. According to the Prithviraja-Raso, Prithviraj assassinated the minister after discovering him in the king’s favourite concubine Karnati’s room.
Additionally, according to Prithviraj Vijaya, Kadambavasa was in charge of all the military triumphs during the first few years of Prithviraj’s rule. A man by the name of Pratapa-Simha, according to Prithviraja-Prabandha, plotted against the minister and completely persuaded Prithviraj Chauhan to think that the minister was to blame for the frequent Muslim assaults of his realm. Prithviraj Chauhan later executed the minister as a result of this.
Prithviraj’s mother’s paternal uncle Bhuvanaikamalla was another significant minister at the period. He was a brave commander who served Prithviraj like the bird Garuda serves Vishnu, according to Prithviraja Vijaya. He was “skillful in the art of subduing nagas, the narrative adds. The word “naga” in this context, according to historian Jonaraja, alludes to elephants. Har Bilas Sarda, on the other hand, believed that Naga was the name of a tribe and postulated that Bhuvanaikamalla had vanquished this tribe.
Dasharatha Sharma, a historian, assert that in 1180 CE, Prithviraj took over full control of the government (1237 VS) with the help of his ministers.
Nagarjuna and Prithviraj Chauhan’s Conflict
In the year 1180 CE, Prithviraj Chauhan established undisputed dominance, but soon faced challenges from other Hindu kings who sought to annex the Chahamana dynasty. Prithviraj Chauhan’s first victory in battle was over his cousin Nagarjuna. The insurrection against Prithviraj Chauhan’s coronation as king was led by his uncle Vigraharaja IV, whose son was Nagarjuna. Gudapura, which Nagarjuna had taken, was retaken by Prithviraj Chauhan as a demonstration of his military prowess. It was one of Prithviraj’s initial military successes.
Conflict between Prithviraj Chauhan and the Bhadanakas
In the year 1182 CE, Prithviraj conquered his cousin entirely before moving on to seize the adjacent kingdom of the Bhadanakas. Unknown dynasty known as the Bhadanakas ruled the region around Bayana. Due to Bhadanakas’ conquest of the region around Delhi, which was governed by the Chahamana dynasty, the Chahamana dynasty was always under danger. As the potential threat grew, Prithviraj Chauhan made the decision to utterly eradicate the Bhadanakas.
Conflict between Prithviraj Chauhan and the Chandelas
According to the Madanpur inscriptions from Prithviraj’s reign, Jejakabhukti (current-day Bundelkhand), which was controlled by the Chandela ruler Paramardi, was left by him in 1182–83 CE (1239 VS).
Later folk tales like Prithviraj Raso, Paramal Raso, and Alha-Raso also mention Prithviraj’s conquest of the Chandela realm. The assault on Paramardi by Prithviraj is also mentioned in other literature like Sarangadhara Paddhati and Prabandha Chintamani.
According to the Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali, Prithviraj had departed on a digvijaya (conquest of all the regions). It appears that this is an allusion to the beginning of Prithviraj’s march to Jejakabhukti.
According to tradition, Prithviraj waged war against the Chandelas as follows: After marrying Padamsen’s daughter, Prithviraj was on his way back to Delhi when his group came under assault by “Turkic” terrorist troops (Ghurids). Although his army successfully repelled the onslaught, it did so at a high cost. The Chahamana soldiers became confused in this confusion and mistakenly set up camp in Mahoba, the Chandela capital. They engaged in a conflict when the Chandela royal gardener protested their presence and was slain. Paramardi, the king of the Chandelas, requested that his general Udal attack Prithviraj’s camp, but Udal counselled against doing so.
Mahil Parihar, the ruler of contemporary Orai and the brother-in-law of Paramardi, harboured animosity toward Paramardi and encouraged the king to launch the invasion. After defeating Udal’s army, Prithviraj departed for Delhi. Udal and his brother Alha then departed the Chandela court since they were upset with Mahil’s scheme. They began serving Kannauj’s Gahadavala monarch Jaichand. The Chandela kingdom had grown frail in the absence of its best generals, Mahil then quietly told Prithviraj. Sirsagarh, which was ruled by Udal’s cousin Malkhan, was besieged by Prithviraj after he conquered the Chandela kingdom.
Prithviraj took control of the fort after losing eight generals and failing to defeat Malkhan peacefully. The Chandelas then requested a cease-fire and took advantage of this opportunity to fly Alha and Udal back to Kannauj. Jaichand sent an army under the command of two of his sons and his greatest generals to aid the Chandelas. Prithviraj’s camp was attacked by the united Chandela-Gahadavala force, but they were repulsed. Mahoba was fired by Prithviraj after his win. Then, in order to take Paramardi, he sent his general Chavand Rai to Kalinjar Fort. The numerous versions claim that Paramardi either away or resigned soon after the assault. After naming Pajjun Rai as the governor of Mahoba, Prithviraj left for Delhi. Mahoba was afterwards reclaimed by Paramardi’s son.
This fabled story’s exact historicity is up for debate. Prithviraj’s conquest of Mahoba is documented in the Madanpur inscriptions, but historical data indicates that his rule over Chandela land was either a short-lived occupation or a creation of the bards. It is well known that Paramardi did not pass away or stop reigning right after the Chauhan triumph; rather, he did so for about ten years after Prithviraj’s demise. According to Cynthia Talbot, Prithviraj merely attacked Jejakabhukti, and Paramardi reclaimed his kingdom shortly after leaving Mahoba. According to Talbot, Prithviraj was unable to include the Chandela area within his realm. R.B. Singh, on the other hand, thinks that it is likely that some Chandela land was briefly occupied by Chahmanas.
After the Prithviraj beat the Chandala monarch, many other kings developed a dislike for him, which led to an alliance between the Chandelas and the Gahadavalas. Prithviraj’s camp had been attacked by the joint Chandelas-Gahadavalas force, but they were quickly routed. A few days after the conflict, the alliance was dissolved, and both kings were put to death. A peace agreement between Prithviraj Chauhan and Bhima II, the ruler of Gujarat, was signed in the year 1187 CE, according to the Kharatara-Gachchha-Pattavali. To put an end to the previous conflict between the two kingdoms, a peace treaty was made.
Conflict between Prithviraj Chauhan and the Gahadavalas
The most potent ruler of the Gahadavala kingdom, Jayachandra, and Prithviraj Chauhan clashed, according to Prithviraja Vijaya’s stories. The fact that Prithviraj Chauhan fled with Samyogita, the daughter of Jayachandra, sparked a conflict between the two monarchs. Popular legends like Prithviraja Vijaya, Ain-i-Akbari, and Surjana-Charita all make reference to the occurrence, although many historians think these tales might not be true.
The major tale that is woven around this historical references goes like this; In order to establish his majesty, King Jaichand (Jayachandra) of Kannauj chose to hold a Rajasuya ritual. As a result of his refusal to take part in the ritual, Prithviraj refused to recognise Jaichand as the absolute monarch.
After learning about Prithviraj’s valiant deeds, Samyogita, the daughter of Jaichand (Jayachandra), fell in love with him and vowed to marry only him. Jaichand organised a celebration for his daughter’s swayamvara (husband-selection), but Prithviraj was not invited. Nevertheless, Prithviraj led 100 men on a march to Kannauj where they fled with Samyogita. In the battle against the Gahadavala army, two-thirds of his troops gave their lives, allowing him and Samyogita to flee to Delhi. Prithviraj fell head over heels with his wife when he was in Delhi and began spending most of his time with her. He began to ignore the concerns of state, which finally resulted in his loss to Muhammad of Ghor.
The Prithviraj Chauhan Era
In 1179 CE, Prithviraj’s father was killed in combat, making him the next king. He oversaw both Ajmer and Delhi, and after ascending to the throne, he started a number of initiatives to broaden his realm. He began by conquering the smaller States of Rajasthan, and he was ultimately successful in doing so. After that, he fought and vanquished the Chandelas at Mahoba and Khajuraho. In 1182 CE, he began a campaign against the Gujarati Chalukyas, sparking a protracted battle. In 1187 CE, Bhima 11 ultimately succeeded in defeating him. Additionally, Prithviraj fought the Kannauj Gahadavalas. Despite being successful in growing his kingdom, he kept to himself politically and separated himself from other nearby nations.
Even though Prithviraj Chauhan, a highly well-known monarch of his day, engaged in several conflicts during his reign, certain of those engagements are well-known. The Muslim dynasties conducted many expeditions on the northwest regions of the subcontinent in the 12th century, which allowed them to seize the majority of that region. One such dynasty was the Ghurid dynasty, whose leader Muhammad of Ghor across the Indus river to seize Multan, a former outpost of the Chahamana empire. The western regions of Prithviraj’s kingdom were under Ghor’s power.
Now that Prithviraj Chauhan was in charge of the east, Muhammad Ghor desired to enlarge his rule in that region. This caused frequent conflicts between the two. Prithviraj and Muhammad of Ghor are supposed to have engaged in several conflicts, although there is little proof for all but two of them. Those were referred to as the Tarain conflicts.
Prithviraj Chauhan’s Capture According to Jain Historians
There are four major Jain historians. But they themselves have conflicting accounts so they are cited as one of the legends not serious historical accounts.
According to Prabandha Chintamani by the Jain scholar Merutunga from the fourteenth century, as retaliation, Prithviraj severed the ears of one of his ministers who led the Ghurid invaders to his camp. After a day of holy fasting, Prithviraj was in a deep sleep and was therefore quickly apprehended.
Mahakavya Hammira According to a report by the Jain scholar Nayachandra Suri from the 15th century, the Ghurid monarch formed a new army with the assistance of a nearby ruler and marched to Delhi following his original loss. He used gold money as bribes to Prithviraj’s horse and musician masters prior to the combat. The horse trainer had taught Prithviraj’s mount to prance to the rhythm of the drums. When Prithviraj was asleep, soon before dawn, the Ghurids attacked the Chahamana camp. When Prithviraj attempted to flee on his horse, his musicians beat their drums. When the horse began to prance, Prithviraj was quickly taken prisoner by the attackers.
Another Jain scripture claims that Prithviraja Prabandha, Kaimbasa, Prithviraj’s minister, and Pratapasimha, his spear-bearer, did not get along. When Pratapasimha convinced the king that Kaimbasa was helping the Ghurids, Kaimbasa once protested to the king about him. One night, an enraged Prithviraj shot another man with an arrow while trying to slay Kaimbasa. The monarch sacked the minister and the bard after Chand Baliddika warned him. Prithviraj had been asleep for 10 days when the Ghurids invaded Delhi. Prithviraj tried to leave on a horse, but Kaimbasa assisted the Ghurids in capturing him by informing them about a certain sound that made his horse dance. His sister awakened him asleep as the Ghurids drew near.
Tarain’s Initial Battle
In the year 1190 CE, the Tarain War, the first battle of Tarain, started. Muhammad Ghor had already taken control of Tabarhinda, a portion of Chahamana, prior to the commencement of this conflict. When Prithviraj heard the news, he became extremely angry. He started an effort to get there. After taking Tabarhindah, Ghor had made the decision to return to his base, but when he learned of Prithviraj’s onslaught, he changed his mind and chose to keep his army and put up a fight. There were several losses in the conflict between the two forces. Ghor was wounded as a result of Prithviraj’s army defeating Ghor’s army, but he managed to flee.
The Second Tarain Battle
Muhammad Ghor was beaten by Prithviraj in the first battle of Tarain, and after that, Prithviraj had no desire to confront him again since, to him, the first war had become just a border conflict. He didn’t anticipate having to face Muhammad Muhammad Ghor again since he undervalued him. According to legend, Muhammad Ghor ambushed Prithviraj during the night and fooled his army. Even though Prithviraj’s army was small and he had few Hindu friends, he put up a fair battle. In the second battle of Tarain, Muhammad Ghor eventually overcame him, and Chahamana was taken prisoner.
Prithviraj Chauhan’s Veergati for Dharm and Mother Dharti
It is significant to highlight that it is unclear exactly when and how he passed away. According to several records from the Middle Ages, Muhammad of Ghor transported Prithviraj to Ajmer where he was confined as a vassal of the Ghurids. After challenging Muhammad of Ghor, Prithviraj Chauhan revolted and was eventually put to death for treason. The “horse-and-bullman” style coins, which have the names “Muhammad bin Sam” on one side and “Prithviraj” on the other, lend credence to this notion. The precise cause of Prithviraj Chauhan’s passing is unclear according to all available sources.
According to a Muslim historian named Hasan Nizami, Prithviraj Chauhan was beheaded by the king after being discovered plotting against Muhammad of Ghor. The actual nature of the plot has not been fully detailed by the historian.
Prithviraja-Prabandha claims that Prithviraj Chauhan has preserved the structure that was next to the court and the apartment of Muhammad of Ghor. In order to carry out his plot to murder Muhammad, Prithviraj Chauhan requested a bow and arrows from his minister Pratapasimha. Minister granted his request and gave him the guns, but he also told Muhammad about the covert strategy that Prithviraj had been preparing to have him killed. Later, Prithviraj Chauhan was kidnapped and dropped into a pit where he was stoned to death.
After being defeated, Prithviraj Chauhan allegedly refused to eat, which finally caused his demise. Other reports claim that Prithviraj Chauhan was murdered right away after he passed away. Prithviraj Raso claims that after being transferred to Ghazna, where he was blinded, Prithviraj was later murdered in the jail. “Viruddha-Vidhi Vidhvansa” claims that Prithviraj Chauhan died right away following the conflict.
The Ghurids made Govindaraja, the successor to the throne of Ajmer, their vassal after Prithviraj’s passing. Hariraja, the younger brother of Prithviraj, overthrew Govindaraja in 1192 CE and reclaimed a portion of his ancestral domain. Govindaraja relocated to Ranastambhapura (modern-day Ranthambore), where he founded a fresh line of Chahamana vassal kings.